2020 Nobel Prizes

The Nobel Prizes are awarded every October, recognizing outstanding contributions to humanity in chemistry, literature, peace, physics and physiology or medicine; there’s also a prize in economic sciences. Here’s a round-up of this year’s winners in the sciences and some of their Annual Reviews papers.

This year’s prize in physiology or medicine was awarded jointly to Harvey J. Alter, Michael Houghton and Charles M. Rice for their discovery of the hepatitis C virus, which causes cirrhosis and liver cancer in people around the world. For a deep dive into the research, see: “Turning Hepatitis C into a Real Virus” in the Annual Review of Microbiology; “Interferon-Stimulated Genes: A Complex Web of Host Defenses” in the Annual Review of Immunology; and “New Methods in Tissue Engineering: Improved Models for Viral Infection” in the Annual Review of Virology.

The chemistry prize was awarded to Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer A. Doudna for the discovery and development of the genetic scissors called CRISPR-Cas9, which allow researchers to precisely alter the DNA of animals, plants and microorganisms. For more of their research, see some of Dr. Doudna’s papers in the Annual Review of Biophysics: “CRISPR-Cas9 Structures and Mechanisms” and “Molecular Mechanisms of RNA Interference.”

This year’s prize in physics was awarded for work on black holes. Half of the award went to Roger Penrose for demonstrating that black holes were mathematically possible, and the other half was jointly awarded to Reinhard Genzel and Andrea Ghez for their discovery of a massive black hole at the center of our galaxy, the Milky Way. To dive into the research, see “The Evolution of the Star-Forming Interstellar Medium Across Cosmic Time” and “Extragalactic Results from the Infrared Space Observatory” in the Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics.

The 2020 Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel was awarded to Paul Milgrom and Robert Wilson, both of Stanford University, for their work on how auctions work, as well as their development of new types of auctions that have maximized revenue for sellers while saving buyer and taxpayer money. For more on their research, read Dr. Milgrom’s 2019 article “Auction Market Design: Recent Innovations” in the Annual Review of Economics.

Annual Reviews is a nonprofit publisher dedicated to synthesizing and integrating knowledge for the progress of science and benefit of society.  Journalists who require further information, access to our content or press contacts can visit the Press Center.

Annual Reviews appoints Kara Mitzel to role of Director of Development

Nonprofit publisher Annual Reviews is pleased to announce that Kara Mitzel has been appointed Director of Development.

In this newly created role, Kara will work with Annual Reviews’ staff, volunteer leadership and stakeholders to increase philanthropic support for Annual Reviews’ mission to synthesize and integrate knowledge for the progress of science and the benefit of society. 

Richard Gallagher, President and Editor-In-Chief said:

“I am delighted to welcome Kara to Annual Reviews. She joins us at a time of change for our 88-year-old organization. While continuing to provide crucial service to the research and academic community, it is clear that the science covered in our review journals underlies many of the issues that society is grappling with today.  Kara’s role will be to develop strategies to share the knowledge and wisdom of research with policy makers, practitioners, educators, students, and citizens.”

A professional in the field for over twenty years, Kara has worked with some of the nation’s top foundations, corporations and philanthropists to advance institutions such as the University of California, Berkeley, the Science History Institute (formerly the Chemical Heritage Foundation), Drexel University, and Hobart and William Smith Colleges. She most recently served as Director of Foundation and Corporate Relations at John Muir Health. Having spent the bulk of her career in higher education, she is happy to be returning to a position that supports the academic enterprise.

Kara Mitzel, Director of Development added:

“I’ve spent much of my career finding the resources to help researchers create new knowledge. Annual Reviews is an opportunity to not only foster that new knowledge, but ensure that it’s disseminated to the people who need it which, right now, is all of us. Now more than ever, it’s clear that making knowledge accessible is critical to our health, well-being and potential. I’m looking forward to working with everyone at Annual Reviews to make your impact deeper, broader and more meaningful.” 

About Annual Reviews: Annual Reviews is a nonprofit publisher dedicated to synthesizing and integrating knowledge for the progress of science and benefit of society.  Journalists who require further information, access to our content or press contacts can visit the Press Center.

Seeking a Wikipedian-In-Residence

Annual Reviews, an independent, nonprofit scholarly research publisher seeks an enthusiastic Wikipedian-in-Residence (WIR). The aim of this appointment is to improve Wikipedia’s coverage of the sciences by citing expert articles from Annual Reviews’ journals.  The WIR will engage with Wikipedia editors across life, biomedical, physical, and social science articles and WikiProjects to help ensure responsible and valuable expansion of content.

This is a temporary position for 10 hours/week, paid at $30/hour USD which is anticipated to last for a period of up to approximately 1 year. This position can be based remotely from the following states: CA, OR, OH, NV, NC, WA, WI, CO, MA, PA, NY, HI, or MT.

The WIR will work with the team at Annual Reviews and receive guidance from Jake Orlowitz (User:Ocaasi, Founder of The Wikipedia Library).  

We are currently seeking applicants with a scientific background and/or Wikipedia editing and organizing experience:

  • Ability to match scholarly review articles that add context and the expert view to Wikipedia articles
  • Background, education, or interest in any of these fields: life, biomedical, physical or social sciences
  • Experience editing Wikipedia or writing for other public knowledge efforts
  • Understanding of collaborative group project development
  • Experience with online community organizing and outreach
  • Comfort working across a distributed network of editors and researchers
  • Ability to teach others about reliable sources, citation practices, and editing skills
  • Familiarity with remote work, email, online scheduling and virtual meetings
  • Excellent English writing, speaking, and communication skills
  • Passion about open knowledge, research and education

We want to learn more about you. Please send your resume and cover letter explaining why you believe you are a fit for this role. You can apply using this link no later than March 20th 2020.

About Annual Reviews and Wikipedia:

Annual Reviews is a nonprofit publisher with a mission to synthesize and integrate knowledge for the progress of science and the benefit of society. We publish 51 review journals across the life, biomedical, physical and social sciences. An Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action employer.

Wikipedia is a multilingual online encyclopedia created and maintained as an open collaboration project by a community of volunteer editors using a wiki-based editing system. It is the largest and most popular general reference work on the internet.

Knowable Magazine Celebrates Two Milestones

Nonprofit publisher Annual Reviews is pleased to announce that the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation renewed its support of Knowable Magazine, as the freely available online publication turned two.

Knowable Magazine provides in-depth, intelligent journalism across a broad array of scientific disciplines. It launched in October 2017, with the goal to cultivate public understanding of science by making expert knowledge accessible to all.

Knowable Magazine is off to a fast start. We are delighted to see this early effort grow into a powerful, lively and authoritative voice for understanding science. It is finding a wide audience that enjoys science; they benefit from the unique depth and breadth of Annual Reviews,” said Robert Kirshner, Chief Program Officer of the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation’s Science Program.

Annual Reviews President and Editor-in-Chief Richard Gallagher said: “We are deeply grateful to the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation for their continuing support of $1.6 million over two years”.

2019 Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel

Congratulations to contributing authors Esther Duflo and Abhijit V. Banerjee, of MIT, and Michael Kremer, of Harvard, who shared the 2019 Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel “for their experimental approach to alleviating global poverty.”

Duflo was a founding Editorial Committee Member of the Annual Review of Economics. Listen to a 2011 interview in which she discusses the methods she developed and for which she is being recognised, in English and French.

We’ve made these articles freely available to celebrate this achievement:

The Experimental Approach to Development Economics, A.V. Banerjee and E. Duflo, 2009 Annual Review of Economics
Under the Thumb of History? Political Institutions and the Scope for Action, A.V. Banerjee and E. Duflo, 2014 Annual Review of Economics
Improving Education in the Developing World: What Have We Learned from Randomized Evaluations?, M. Kremer, 2009 Annual Review of Economics
Providing Safe Water: Evidence from Randomized Evaluations, M. Kremer, 2010 Annual Review of Economics
Using Randomized Controlled Trials to Estimate Long-Run Impacts in Development Economics,
M. Kremer, 2019 Annual Review of Economics

Annual Reviews is a nonprofit publisher dedicated to synthesizing and integrating knowledge for the progress of science and the benefit of society. To find out how we create our highly cited reviews and stimulate discussion about science, please watch this short video. Members of the media can visit our Press Center to sign up for journal access.

2019 Nobel Prize in Chemistry

Congratulations to our contributing authors John B. Goodenough, of the University of Texas at Austin, who shared the 2019 Nobel Prize in Chemistry  with M. Stanley Wittingham, of Binghamton University and Akira Yoshino, of the Asahi Kasei Corporation and Meijo University, “for the development of lithium-ion batteries.”

We’ve made these articles freely available to celebrate this achievement:

Oxide-Ion Electrolytes, J.B. Goodenough, 2003 Annual Review of Materials Research
Jahn-Teller Phenomena in Solids, J.B. Goodenough, 1998 Annual Review of Materials Research

Annual Reviews is a nonprofit publisher dedicated to synthesizing and integrating knowledge for the progress of science and the benefit of society. To find out how we create our highly cited reviews and stimulate discussion about science, please watch this short video. Members of the media can visit our Press Center to sign up for journal access.

2019 Nobel Prize in Physics

Congratulations to our contributing author P. James E. Peebles, of Princeton University, who won the 2019 Nobel Prize in Physics  “for theoretical discoveries in physical cosmology.” He shares it with Michel Mayor, of the University of Geneva, and Didier Queloz, also of the University of Geneva and of the University of Cambridge, who won it “for the discovery of an exoplanet orbiting a sola-type star.”

Read P.J.E. Peebles’ autobiographical article and watch him in conversation with Sandra Faber, of the University of California, Santa Cruz, who is the co-Editor of the Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics:

Seeing Cosmology Grow, 2012 Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics

Annual Reviews is a nonprofit publisher dedicated to synthesizing and integrating knowledge for the progress of science and the benefit of society. To find out how we create our highly cited reviews and stimulate discussion about science, please watch this short video. Members of the media can visit our Press Center to sign up for journal access.

2019 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

Congratulations to our contributing authors William G. Kaelin, Jr., of Harvard Medical School and the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and Gregg L. Semenza, of Johns Hopkins University, who shared the 2019 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine  with Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe, of Oxford University, “for their discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability.”

We’ve made these articles freely available to celebrate this achievement:

The von Hippel-Lindow Tumor Suppressor Protein, W. G. Kaelin, Jr., 2018 Annual Review of Cancer Biology
Pharmacologic Targeting of Hypoxia-Inducible Factors, G. L. Semenza, 2019 Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Oxygen Sensing, Hypoxia-Inducible Factors, and Disease Pathophysiology, G. L. Semenza, 2014 Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease
Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 and Cardiovascular Disease, G. L. Semenza, 2014 Annual Review of Physiology

Annual Reviews is a nonprofit publisher dedicated to synthesizing and integrating knowledge for the progress of science and the benefit of society. To find out how we create our highly cited reviews and stimulate discussion about science, please watch this short video. Members of the media can visit our Press Center to sign up for journal access.

2020 NAS Award for Scientific Reviewing – Call for Nominations in the Social Sciences

Annual Reviews is pleased to sponsor the 2020 National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Award for Scientific Reviewing presented in the Social Sciences.

The NAS Award for Scientific Reviewing has been presented annually since 1979 to recognize authors, whose reviews have synthesized extensive and difficult material, rendering a significant service to science and influencing the course of scientific thought. The field rotates among biological, physical, and social sciences.

The NAS Award for Scientific Reviewing was established in 1977 by the gift of Annual Reviews and the Institute for Scientific Information in honor of J. Murray Luck (our founder). The award is currently sponsored entirely by Annual Reviews.

The 2020 award recognizes authors who, through their conceptual consideration and review of the field, have both rendered a significant service to science and had a profound influence on the course of scientific thought.

To nominate a review author in the field of the Social Sciences, you must submit your application by October 7tht, 2019.

Annual Reviews is a nonprofit publisher dedicated to synthesizing and integrating knowledge for the progress of science and the benefit of society.

The NAS is a private, nonprofit society of distinguished scholars. Established by an Act of Congress, signed by President Abraham Lincoln in 1863, the NAS is charged with providing independent, objective advice to the nation on matters related to science and technology. The NAS is committed to furthering science in America, and its members are active contributors to the international scientific community.

LGBTQ+ Studies: a Mini-Collection of Review Articles.

June 2019 marks the 50th anniversary of the Stonewall riots, an uprising of the LGBTQ+ community in New York City that is credited for sparking the gay rights movement in the United States.   

To commemorate the anniversary, we are offering access to four articles that explore health, law, research, and public opinion of the LGBTQ+ community. They are all freely available to read.

“There have been extraordinary changes in public understanding and acceptance of LGBT people and issues, and significant advances have been made in scientific understanding of LGBT youth mental health. At the same time, critical gaps in knowledge continue to prevent the most effective policies, programs, and clinical care from addressing mental health for LGBT young people.” 

Mental Health in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Youth, in the 2016 Annual Review of Clinical Psychology

“In a review of courts’ use of social science evidence on same-sex parenting and the immutability of homosexuality, Levit notes ‘a fairly dramatic shift in the past twenty years, [in which] science is becoming an ally to rather than an oppressor of gays and lesbians.’ Levit’s observation receives support from a recent study of citation patterns in social science research on the effect of parents’ sexual orientation on child outcomes.” 

The Role of Social Science Expertise in Same-Sex Marriage Litigation, in the 2017 Annual Review of Law and Social Science

“The prediction that transgender people would fall into the dustbin of history proved to be far off the mark. In the 1980s and 1990s, vibrant activism by transgender and gender nonconforming people around their economic and social marginalization, the medical regulation of their identities, and the legal restrictions on cross-dressing in public that were still on the books in many cities and states gained more visibility.” 

The Development of Transgender Studies in Sociology, in the 2017 Annual Review of Sociology.  

“With television shows such as Ellen and Will & Grace, even people who would not necessarily know an out gay individual have an opportunity to virtually know one. (…) Multiple studies have found that knowing someone who is gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender is associated with more supportive attitudes. Moreover, the degree of contact matters. People are more likely to have positive views when they have a closer relationship with someone who is gay (Brewer 2007). It is harder to express negative views and discriminate against someone if the person is a close friend or family member.” 

Examining Public Opinion About LGBTQ-Related Issues in the United States and Across Multiple Nations, in the 2019 Annual Review of Sociology.