Congratulations to Annual Reviews Authors on NAS Awards

Congratulations to the following Annual Reviews contributing authors for receiving these National Academy of Sciences awards:

Barbara Dosher, of the University of California, Irvine, won the Atkinson Prize in Psychological and Cognitive Sciences “for her groundbreaking work on human memory, attention, and learning.” She wrote for the 2017 Annual Review of Vision Science.

She shared the prize with Richard Shiffrin, of Indiana University, who was recognized “for pioneering contributions to the investigation of memory and attention.” He wrote for the 1992 Annual Review of Psychology.

Günter Wagner, of Yale University, won the Daniel Giraud Elliot Medal “for his book  Homology, Genes, and Evolutionary Innovation, which makes fundamental contributions to our understanding of the evolution of complex organisms.” He wrote for the Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics in 1989 and 1991.

Mark E. Hay, of the Georgia Institute of Technology, won the Gilbert Morgan Smith Medal “for his research into algal science, with implications for the world’s imperiled coral reefs.” He wrote for the Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics in 1988 and 2004, and the Annual Review of Marine Science in 2009.

James P. Allison, of the University of Texas MD Anderson Center, won the Jessie Stevenson Kovalenko Medal “for important discoveries related to the body’s immune response to tumors.” He wrote for the Annual Review of Immunology in 1987, 1991, and 2001, and the Annual Review of Medicine in 2014.

Howard Y. Chang, of Stanford University, won the NAS Award in Molecular Biology “for the discovery of long noncoding RNAs and the invention of genomic technologies.” He wrote for the Annual Review of Biochemistry in 2009 and 2012.

Rodolphe Barrangou, of North Carolina State University, won the NAS Prize in Food and Agriculture Sciences “for the discovery of the genetic mechanisms and proteins driving CRISPR-Cas systems.” He wrote for the Annual Review of Food Science in 2012, 2016, and 2017, and the Annual Review of Genetics in 2017.

Marlene R. Cohen, of the University of Pittsburgh, won the Troland Research Award “for her pioneering studies of how neurons in the brain process visual information.” She wrote for the Annual Review of Neuroscience in 2012 and 2018.

Etel Solingen, of the University of California, Irvine, won the William and Katherine Estes Award “for pathbreaking work on nuclear proliferation and reducing the risks of nuclear war.” She wrote for the Annual Review of Political Science in 2010.

Jennifer A. Doudna, Annual Reviews Contributing Author, Wins Kavli Prize, NAS Medal

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Photo: Doudna Lab, UC Berkeley

Congratulations to Jennifer A. Doudna, of the University of California, Berkeley, who won the 2018 Kavli Prize in Nanoscience and the National Academy of Science Award in Chemical Sciences.

Dr. Doudna shared the Kavli Prize with Emmanuelle Charpentier, of the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, and Virginijus Šikšnys, of Vilnius University, “for the invention of CRISPR-Cas9, a precise nanotool for editing DNA, causing a revolution in biology, agriculture, and medicine.” 

She received the NAS Award “for co-inventing the technology for efficient site-specific genome engineering using CRISPR/Cas9 nucleases.”

Read her articles on the topic here.

2018 Kavli Prize in Neuroscience Goes to Annual Reviews Authors Hudspeth, Fettiplace, Petit

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Photo: kavliprize.org.

Congratulations to A. James Hudspeth, of Rockefeller University; Robert Fettiplace, of the University of Wisconsin–Madison; and Christine Petit, of the Institut Pasteur, who shared the 2018 Kavli Prize in Neuroscience “for their pioneering work on the molecular and neural mechanisms of hearing.”

Click on their names to find the articles they wrote for the Annual Review of Biophysics, the Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology, the Annual Review of Neuroscience, the Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics, and the Annual Review of Physiology.

Annual Reviews of Astronomy and Astrophysics Co-Editor Ewine van Dishoeck Wins Kavli Prize, NAS Medal

Screen Shot 2018-06-04 at 11.13.24.pngCongratulations to Ewine van Dishoeck, of Leiden University, who won the 2018 Kavli Prize in Astrophysics and the National Academy of Science James Craig Watson Medal.

The Co-Editor of the Annual Review of Astrophysics received the Kavli Prize “for her combined contributions to observational, theoretical, and laboratory astrochemistry, elucidating the life cycle of interstellar clouds and the formation of stars and planets.”

The James Craig Watson Medal was awarded to her “for improving our understanding of how molecules, stars, and planets form.”

Dr. van Dishoeck has co-edited the journal with Sandra Faber since 2010. You can find her articles about planet, star, and molecule formation here.

Professor Karen S. Cook elected as new Chair of the Annual Reviews Board of Directors

Karen S. Cook, the Ray Lyman Wilbur Professor of Sociology; Director of the Institute for Research in the Social Sciences; Vice-Provost for Faculty Development and Diversity at Stanford University; and Class V Secretary, National Academy of Sciences, has been unanimously elected to the role of Chair of the Board at Annual Reviews, effective June 1, 2018.

Dr. Cook has served as Co-Editor of the Annual Review of Sociology since 1998, and as Vice-Chair of the Annual Reviews Board of Directors since 2010, a position also held by Dr. Sandra M. Faber, Professor and Astronomer, University of California, Santa Cruz. Dr. Cook conducts research on social interaction, social networks, social exchange, and trust. She has authored and co-authored numerous reviews and papers, as well as edited a number of books in the Russell Sage Foundation Trust Series.

She succeeds Professor Richard N. Zare, the Marguerite Blake Wilbur Professor in Natural Science, Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, who has led the Board for 23 years, from 1995 to 2018. Professor Zare also served as the Co-Editor of the Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry from 2006 to 2010. He has co-authored numerous reviews, including two autobiographies. Professor Zare is renowned for his research in the area of laser chemistry, which has led to numerous awards and honors.

During his tenure, in partnership with Dr. Samuel Gubins, President and Editor-in-Chief Emeritus of Annual Reviews (1995 to 2015), Professor Zare expanded Annual Reviews to many fields while maintaining the highest standards. Annual Reviews continues to be a unique and impactful publisher as a result of his guidance and leadership.

Dr. Richard Gallagher, President and Editor-in-Chief of Annual Reviews, said,

“Passing the baton from Dick to Karen offers a seamless progression of leadership for our Board. Dick’s long-lasting passion for and contributions to our mission—to synthesize scientific knowledge so that investigators can plan new and impactful research directions—will continue through a new lecture series named in his honor and his ongoing participation in the Board. The role of Board Chair is now in another pair of excellent hands. On behalf of the Board, Editorial Committees, and staff of Annual Reviews, I congratulate Karen and look forward to continuing our working relationship for many years to come.” 

Annual Reviews is a nonprofit publisher dedicated to synthesizing and integrating knowledge to stimulate the progress of science and benefit society. For more than 85 years, Annual Reviews has offered expert review journals which today span 50 titles across the biomedical, life, physical, and social sciences.  Annual Reviews launched Knowable Magazine in 2017, an open access digital magazine to explore the real-world significance of this highly cited scholarship and make it accessible to broad audiences.

 

 

Annual Reviews publishes first multidisciplinary autonomous systems review journal

The Annual Review of Control, Robotics, and Autonomous Systems, led by Editor Naomi Ehrich Leonard, highlights theoretical and applied research in control and robotics that drives and enriches the engineering of autonomous systems.

Annual Reviews, a nonprofit publisher of scholarly review journals for more than 85 years, announces the publication of the first volume of the Annual Review of Control, Robotics, and Autonomous Systems, its 49th review journal. The new journal is the first of its kind to cover both the broad fields of control and robotics and their fundamental roles in the increasingly important area of autonomous systems.

Topics in the first volume cover control and its connections to game theory, distributed optimization, Kalman filtering, geometric mechanics, privacy, data-driven strategies, and deep learning, together with robotics and its connections to manipulation, materials, mechanisms, planning, decision-making, and synthesis. Applications include artificial touch, soft micro and bio-inspired robotics, minimally invasive medical technologies, rehabilitative robotics, autonomous flight, airspace management, and systems biology.

Tremendous progress across industry and academia has advanced the theory and applications of control, robotics, and autonomous systems. The global robotics market is expected to reach $67 billion by 2025, with significant annual growth rates, according to industry analysis conducted by Boston Consulting Group. Autonomous vehicles are already on the road and in the air, while robots vacuum floors at home. Scientists explore the ocean with fleets of autonomous underwater vehicles. At hospitals, surgeons and engineers are supported by robotics to deliver minimally invasive medical interventions, diagnostics, and drug delivery. Veterans and many others benefit from advanced prosthetics. The comprehensive reviews in the Annual Review of Control, Robotics, and Autonomous Systems provide expert syntheses that cover decades of foundational research and assess the challenges and potential future directions of these fields.

On publishing the inaugural volume, the journal’s Editor, Dr. Naomi Ehrich Leonard, addressed her vision for the journal and the value of review articles in a highly multidisciplinary field:

“The opportunities are enormous for control, robotics, and autonomous systems to help make the world a better place. Search and rescue, environmental monitoring, surgical assistance, and smart grids are just a few high-impact applications. This journal provides a much-needed unifying forum for the richly varied and ever-evolving research that promotes creativity and advances control, robotics, and the engineering of autonomous systems. Researchers and practitioners alike will find the articles of great value in learning and integrating across the many interconnected disciplines that contribute to this fantastically exciting field.”

The control field features innovation, development, and application of methodologies for the design and analysis of autonomous system response to sensory feedback, with the aim of regulating the stability, speed, accuracy, efficiency, reliability, and robustness of autonomous system behavior. The robotics field features innovation, design, analysis, creation, operation, and application of robots from industrial to nano-scale, from the bottom of the ocean, to the inside of the human body, to the surface of Mars, and everywhere in between. To fully cover the research at the nexus of control, robotics, and autonomous systems, the journal’s articles connect to many related fields, including mechanics, optimization, communication, information theory, machine learning, computing, signal processing, human behavioral sciences, and biology.

Dr. Leonard, who is the Edwin S. Wilsey Professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Princeton University, has been recognized as a MacArthur Fellow. She pursues collaborative, multidisciplinary research in control, dynamics, and robotics with engineers, oceanographers, biologists, and choreographers. She has explored the mechanisms that explain the collective dynamics of animal groups, including killifish, honeybees, caribou, and starlings, and has developed bio-inspired methodologies for control of robot teams. One of Dr. Leonard’s largest projects culminated in a field demonstration in Monterey Bay, California, of an autonomous ocean-observing system that featured a coordinated network of underwater robotic gliders.

The full volume, publishing online May 29, 2018, will be freely available online for an initial preview period.

Annual Reviews is a nonprofit publisher dedicated to synthesizing and integrating knowledge to stimulate the progress of science and benefit society. For more than 85 years, Annual Reviews has offered expert review journals which today span 50 titles across the biomedical, life, physical, and social sciences.  Annual Reviews launched Knowable Magazine in 2017, an open access digital magazine to explore the real-world significance of this highly cited scholarship and make it accessible to broad audiences.

Professor Stanley Falkow – 1934-2018 – father of molecular microbial pathogenesis

It is with sadness that we share the news that Professor Stanley Falkow of Stanford University School of Medicine, esteemed member of the editorial committee for the Annual Review of Microbiology, co-author of three review articles and an autobiographical article,  passed away (5th May 2018) at the age of 84.

Those of us who didn’t know Professor Falkow can get a vivid impression of him by reading his autobiographical article entitled: The Fortunate Professor. The title makes it clear that this was a man with an abundance of gratitude. The abstract of his article says simply:

My professional life can be summarized by a quote from the Talmud.

Much have I learned from my teachers,

More from my colleagues,

But most from my students.

It is the fortunate professor who learns from the student.

All of us at Annual Reviews feel equally fortunate to have Professor Falkow play a part in the success of our organization. Our thoughts go out to his family, friends, co-workers and of course his students, from whom he learned so much.

Quick Abstracts from Google Scholar – find and filter articles on the go!

Thanks to an innovation from Google Scholar called Quick Abstracts, it’s now easier to use your phone to find and filter through scholarly articles on the go.

Clicking a Scholar search result on your smartphone now opens a quick preview which you can swipe to browse through abstracts. When you find content that helps answer your query, you can click through to Annual Reviews for the full-text. Access is via subscription or pay per view. Note: the Annual Review of Public Health is Open Access, freely available to read, reuse and share.

Many of us use our phones in nearly every aspect of our daily lives, so it’s handy to also have this new feature. We’re delighted to be part of this endeavor which is aimed at helping researchers reach content more quickly, wherever they are.

Making Realistic 3D Printed Organs to Plan Surgery

What if a surgical model not only could mimic the look and feel of a patient’s organ but also give surgeons quantitative feedback as they use it to practice the procedure? A team of scientists in the McAlpine Research Group at the University of Minnesota have been trying to answer this question, creating a prostate model that accomplishes exactly that.

In their article for the Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry, titled “3D Printed Organ Models for Surgical Applications,” Kaiyan Qiu, Ghazaleh Haghiashtiani, and Michael C. McAlpine from the University of Minnesota, review current materials used in 3D printed patient-specific organ models used in surgical pre-planning, as well as the state-of-the-art materials and techniques that allow them to replicate many kinds of human tissue.

The use of 3D models in medicine and anatomy is not new. Centuries ago, they were fashioned out of clay, wax, wood, glass, plaster, or even ivory, and they served as teaching tools or as illustrations of the mechanisms of disease, without having to resort to human dissection.

More recently, the boom in 3D printing technology has allowed medical professionals to visualize organs that might require surgery. Using data collected with imaging techniques such as CT scans, MRIs, or ultrasounds, these models can be fabricated to the exact specifications of a person’s organ.

This is of vital importance. A recent study has shown that an average of more than 250,000 people die each year in the United States as a result of medical errors, including more than 4,000 “never events” in surgery — events that should never have happened. Although complete elimination of errors is impossible, proper surgical planning and rehearsal can be key to reducing their occurrence. Model organs are quickly becoming invaluable tools to help prepare for surgery, not just allowing doctors to get a better feel for the organ on which they must operate, but also letting them plan the procedure. Recently, a 3D printed model of a patient’s hip joint changed the surgical team’s minds about the best treatment plan and resulted in performing a hip replacement instead of reconstruction of the damaged hip joint.

Current materials used in 3D printing have limitations, however. Compared to 2D slices of MRI or CT scans, 3D hard plastic models have helped increase the accuracy of surgeons by helping them to visualize the organ. They can also help inform the patients about their conditions and show inexperienced surgeons what to expect from the operation. Their main flaw is that they are not pliable enough to allow for surgical rehearsal. In contrast, rubber-like materials can provide a tactile feel closer to the actual organ they are meant to model and allow for cutting and suturing, but their properties do not precisely match those of an actual organ in elasticity, hardness, or color.

“These present the correct anatomy, but they’re incapable of providing quantitative feedback or even accurate tactile sensation,” said Dr. Qiu, a postdoctoral researcher in the McAlpine group and lead author of the article.

To remedy this, the three co-authors and their team have developed silicone-based 3D printing materials, or “inks,” that can be finely tuned to mimic these properties. Using a customized direct-write assembly 3D printer with a fine nozzle, they were able to construct a prostate model whose dimensions were obtained with MRI imaging and whose physical properties were established by mechanical tests on actual patient prostate samples, which informed their inks.

Screen Shot 2018-03-28 at 11.52.08They were also able to print and integrate electronic sensors onto and within the model that, when connected to a computer, provided quantitative feedback. This capability could enhance surgical precision in an actual procedure, as well as help train surgeons for steadiness, flexibility, and dexterity, just like a high-tech game of “Operation,” where a loud buzz goes off every time the player is too heavy-handed.

“When surgeons practice using different surgical tools, they can know how much force to apply as they get real-time feedback,” said Dr. Qiu. “They can adjust it and use that knowledge in real surgery to avoid damaging tissue.”

They’re not stopping there, setting their sights on more complex 3D models. Some could account for different types of tissue simultaneously printed with different inks. “We could replicate cancerous tissue and healthy tissue within the same model,” says Ms. Haghiashtiani. Another direction is to develop dynamic models, such as a 3D printed heart that can beat like a real one. A third idea is to create models that integrate sensors capable of taking various types of measurements at once, like temperature and multidirectional pressure.

Ultimately, they say, it is possible that their models could replace real organs.

“We are also working on bioprinting, where we can print organs that can replicate biological functions,” said Dr. Qiu.

“If we could get to this point, if we have the technology, you could say ‘why not use this for transplants?’” added Ms. Haghiashtiani.

Read more about prior limitations, current progress, and future perspectives in this important area in their Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry article. 

The Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry, first published in 2008, provides a perspective on the field of analytical chemistry. The journal draws from disciplines as diverse as biology, physics, and engineering, with analytical chemistry as the unifying theme.